History of Luxembourg

10,000 B.C. Earliest Evidence of Settlements on the Titelberg near Petange.

54 BC: Caesar conquered Treveri tribesmen of the Moselle Valley.

52 BC - AD 450: Gallo-Roman era.

300 - 450: Rheinland Franks enlisted in Roman armies, permitted to settle among Gallo-Romans in Rhein-Moselle area. Salian Franks settled in lands between lower Rhein and Scheldt.

451: Raids by the Huns led by Attila the Hun into northern Gaul.

481 - 511: Conquest of Gaul completed by Salian Franks under Clovis. Frankish rule established over Neustria.

481 - 752: Merovingian period. Descendants of Clovis reigned over lands of the Franks.

752: Pepin the Short elected King of the Franks, deposing last Merovingian rulers.

768: Charlemagne, son of Pepin the Short, became King of the Franks. Established his capital at Aix-la-Chappelle (also known as Aachen).

843: Treaty of Verdun. Charlemagne's empire divided among his three grandsons. Lothair I given Middle Kingdom to rule.

855: Death of Lothair I. Lothair II inherited northern part of his Kingdom, which became known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine.

870: Treaty of Mersen. Lothair II died without heirs and Lorraine divided between his uncles, Charles the Bald of France and Ludwig the German.

925: Heinrich the Fowler established German control over Lorraine.

936: Otto I elected King of the Germans, crowned at Aachen.

950: Sigefroi, son of Wigeric, count of the Ardennes, given Echternach as fief by Otto I.

963: Sigefroi began construction of castle on the Bock (beginnings of city of Luxembourg).

963-1354: City of Luxembourg grew up under protection of Sigefroi's castle. Sigefroi's successors recognized as counts of Luxembourg. County of Luxembourg became important feudal state.

1136: Direct male line of Sigefroi came to an end with death of Konrad II. Henri, count of Namur, became count of Luxembourg as Heinrich IV.

1353: Charles IV relinquished Luxembourg to his half-brother, Wenzel (Wenceslas) I.

1354: Luxembourg raised to status of Duchy, with Wenzel I as its first duke.

1383: Wenzel I died without heirs. Brabant reverted to wife's family. Duchy of Luxembourg reverted to his nephew, Wenzel (Wenceslas) II.

1383-1443: Time of troubles. Wenzel II, in need of money, gave Luxembourg as a pawn for repayment of a substantial loan. Luxembourg fell under control of various creditors in turn, ending up under the rule of Wenzel's niece, Elizabeth of Goerlitz. Sigismund, brother of Wenzel I and his successor as Holy Roman Emperor, was unable to repay loan, and left Elizabeth in control.

1441: Elizabeth of Goerlitz sold the Duchy of Luxembourg to Philippe the Good of Burgundy.

1443-1555: Period of Burgundian rule. Duchy of Luxembourg ruled by dukes of Burgundy from their capital at Brussels.

1506: Charles of Ghent, grandson of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Austria, inherited Burgundian possessions, including Duchy of Luxembourg, at age of 6.

1530: Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII in Bologna. Last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope.

1552-1554: Large part of Luxembourg city, including Sigefroi's castle, destroyed while under siege during war between Charles V and Francois I, King of France.

1555: Charles V turned over control of Burgundian possessions in the Netherlands, including Duchy of Luxembourg, to his son Philipp.

1555-1684: Spanish Rule Luxembourg

1556: Philipp became King of Spain as Philip II.

1635: Entrance of France into Thirty Years War, turning Luxembourg into battleground.

1659: First Partition of Luxembourg

Treaty of the Pyrenees ended war between France and Spain. France annexed part of Duchy of Luxembourg, including area around Thionville and Mamedy .

1678-1684: Louis XIV conquered Duchy of Luxembourg.

1684: Fortress of Luxembourg captured by French armies led by Marshal de Crequi.

1684-1697: French rule Luxembourg. Vauban redesigned fortifications of city, making it into Gibraltar of the North.

1697-1715: Spanish Rule Luxembourg

1697: Treaty of Ryswick. Louis XIV forced to return Luxembourg to Spanish rule.

1700: Charles II of Spain died, naming Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, as his heir.

1702-1713: War of the Spanish Succession. New grand alliance formed against France. Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy inflicted heavy defeats upon French armies in Germany and the Netherlands.

1713: Treaty of Utrecht. Spanish Netherlands transferred to Austrian rule.

1715-1795: Austrians Rule Luxembourg

1715-1795: Austrian Hapsburgs ruled over the southern Netherlands, including the Duchy of Luxembourg.

1795: French revolutionary armies captured fortress of Luxembourg after long siege.

1795-1814: French ruled Luxembourg, which became the Department of Forests.

1815: Second Partition of Luxembourg

Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo. Congress of Vienna created Kingdom of the Netherlands, including Belgium and the former Dutch Republic, under rule of Willem I (Willem VI, Prince of Orange). Luxembourg became a Grand Duchy under the personal rule of Willem I, but joined to the new German Confederation rather than the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Eastern third of Luxembourg annexed by Prussia. Prussian garrison installed in fortress.

1830: Belgians revolted against Dutch rule and established their independence. Invited Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to be their king.

1830-1839: Period of Joint Rule.

Luxembourg sent delegates to Belgian Congress, but Prussian troops held the city of Luxembourg for the Dutch king.

1839: Third Partition of Luxembourg

Firsty Treaty of London went into effect. French-speaking western part of the Grand Duchy became Belgian province of Luxembourg. Truncated Grand Duchy became more or less independent, under continued rule of Dutch kings, and remained part of the German Confederation.

1867: Second Treaty of London recognized independence and permanent neutrality of Luxembourg. Prussian garrison withdrew. Fortifications of Luxembourg to be dismantled.

1890: Willem III died. His daughter Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands, but Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg became Grand Duke of Luxembourg.

1914-1918: World War I. Luxembourg under German occupation.

1918-1919: First American Occupation

Two American divisions occupied Grand Duchy. Peace conference at Versailles. Belgium advanced claim to annex Luxembourg.

1919: Referendum established Luxembourg's overwhelming desire to remain independent under the Nassau-Weilburg dynasty. Americans depart peacefully.

1922: Customs and monetary union established with Belgium.

1939: Celebration of 100th anniversary of Luxembourg independence, dating from year First Treaty of London went into effect.

1939-1945: World War II.

10 May 1940: German troops occupied Luxembourg. Government and grand ducal family went into exile.

1942: Hitler proclaimed Luxembourg part of Third Reich. Conscription of Luxembourgers into German army began. General strike in protest put down with great severity.

1944: Second American Occupation

Governments-in-exile signed Benelux agreement. American 5th Armored Division entered Grand Duchy at Rodange on 9 September and liberated the city of Luxembourg on 10th September.

16 Dec 1944-18 Jan 1945: Battle of the Bulge (Rundstedt Offensive). German troops reoccupied northern Belgium and Luxembourg. American Third Army under Patton entered Luxembourg and raced north to defeat the Germans and drive them out of Luxembourg again. The bodies of 5,076 American's who died in the liberation of Luxembourg from Germany rest at the Luxembourg American Cemetery, including the body of General George S. Patton. Additionally there is a memorial to 371 more, whose bodies were not recovered or identified immediately after the war.

1949: Luxembourg joined NATO.

1957: Treaty of Rome. Luxembourg became one of the six founding members of the European Economic Community (EEC).

1963: Luxembourg celebrated 1000th anniversary of the founding of the city.

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