10,000 B.C. Earliest Evidence of Settlements on the Titelberg near Petange.
54 BC: Caesar conquered Treveri tribesmen of the Moselle Valley.
300 - 450: Rheinland Franks enlisted in Roman armies, permitted to settle among Gallo-Romans in Rhein-Moselle area. Salian Franks settled in lands between lower Rhein and Scheldt.
451: Raids by the Huns led by Attila the Hun into northern Gaul.
481 - 511: Conquest of Gaul completed by Salian Franks under Clovis. Frankish rule established over Neustria.
752: Pepin the Short elected King of the Franks, deposing last Merovingian rulers.
768: Charlemagne, son of Pepin the Short, became King of the Franks. Established his capital at Aix-la-Chappelle (also known as Aachen).
843: Treaty of Verdun. Charlemagne's empire divided among his three grandsons. Lothair I given Middle Kingdom to rule.
855: Death of Lothair I. Lothair II inherited northern part of his Kingdom, which became known as Lotharingia, or Lorraine.
870: Treaty of Mersen. Lothair II died without heirs and Lorraine divided between his uncles, Charles the Bald of France and Ludwig the German.
925: Heinrich the Fowler established German control over Lorraine.
936: Otto I elected King of the Germans, crowned at Aachen.
950: Sigefroi, son of Wigeric, count of the Ardennes, given Echternach as fief by Otto I.
963: Sigefroi began construction of castle on the Bock (beginnings of city of Luxembourg).
1136: Direct male line of Sigefroi came to an end with death of Konrad II. Henri, count of Namur, became count of Luxembourg as Heinrich IV.
1353: Charles IV relinquished Luxembourg to his half-brother, Wenzel (Wenceslas) I.
1383: Wenzel I died without heirs. Brabant reverted to wife's family. Duchy of Luxembourg reverted to his nephew, Wenzel (Wenceslas) II.
1383-1443: Time of troubles. Wenzel II, in need of money, gave Luxembourg as a pawn for repayment of a substantial loan. Luxembourg fell under control of various creditors in turn, ending up under the rule of Wenzel's niece, Elizabeth of Goerlitz. Sigismund, brother of Wenzel I and his successor as Holy Roman Emperor, was unable to repay loan, and left Elizabeth in control.
1441: Elizabeth of Goerlitz sold the Duchy of Luxembourg to Philippe the Good of Burgundy.
1506: Charles of Ghent, grandson of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Austria, inherited Burgundian possessions, including Duchy of Luxembourg, at age of 6.
1530: Charles V crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Clement VII in Bologna. Last Holy Roman Emperor to be crowned by a pope.
1552-1554: Large part of Luxembourg city, including Sigefroi's castle, destroyed while under siege during war between Charles V and Francois I, King of France.
1555: Charles V turned over control of Burgundian possessions in the Netherlands, including Duchy of Luxembourg, to his son Philipp.
1556: Philipp became King of Spain as Philip II.
1635: Entrance of France into Thirty Years War, turning Luxembourg into battleground.
1678-1684: Louis XIV conquered Duchy of Luxembourg.
1684: Fortress of Luxembourg captured by French armies led by Marshal de Crequi.
1697: Treaty of Ryswick. Louis XIV forced to return Luxembourg to Spanish rule.
1700: Charles II of Spain died, naming Philip of Anjou, grandson of Louis XIV, as his heir.
1702-1713: War of the Spanish Succession. New grand alliance formed against France. Duke of Marlborough and Prince Eugene of Savoy inflicted heavy defeats upon French armies in Germany and the Netherlands.
1713: Treaty of Utrecht. Spanish Netherlands transferred to Austrian rule.
1715-1795: Austrian Hapsburgs ruled over the southern Netherlands, including the Duchy of Luxembourg.
1795: French revolutionary armies captured fortress of Luxembourg after long siege.
1830: Belgians revolted against Dutch rule and established their independence. Invited Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha to be their king.
1867: Second Treaty of London recognized independence and permanent neutrality of Luxembourg. Prussian garrison withdrew. Fortifications of Luxembourg to be dismantled.
1890: Willem III died. His daughter Wilhelmina became Queen of the Netherlands, but Adolf of Nassau-Weilburg became Grand Duke of Luxembourg.
1919: Referendum established Luxembourg's overwhelming desire to remain independent under the Nassau-Weilburg dynasty. Americans depart peacefully.
1922: Customs and monetary union established with Belgium.
1939: Celebration of 100th anniversary of Luxembourg independence, dating from year First Treaty of London went into effect.
1939-1945: World War II.
1942: Hitler proclaimed Luxembourg part of Third Reich. Conscription of Luxembourgers into German army began. General strike in protest put down with great severity.
16 Dec 1944-18 Jan 1945: Battle of the Bulge (Rundstedt Offensive). German troops reoccupied northern Belgium and Luxembourg. American Third Army under Patton entered Luxembourg and raced north to defeat the Germans and drive them out of Luxembourg again. The bodies of 5,076 American's who died in the liberation of Luxembourg from Germany rest at the Luxembourg American Cemetery, including the body of General George S. Patton. Additionally there is a memorial to 371 more, whose bodies were not recovered or identified immediately after the war.
1949: Luxembourg joined NATO.
1957: Treaty of Rome. Luxembourg became one of the six founding members of the European Economic Community (EEC).